Governor-General of India
The Governor-General of India was the head of the British administration in India. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other British East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, and the official became known as the Governor-General of India. In 1858, India came under the direct control of the British Crown, and the Governor-General acted as the Sovereign's representative. To reflect his role as Crown Representative, the term Viceroy of India was applied to him; the title was abandoned when India became independent in 1947. The office of Governor-General continued to exist until India adopted a republican constitution in 1950.
Until 1858, the Governor-General was selected by the Court of Directors of the British East India Company, to whom he was responsible. Thereafter, he was appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the British government; the Secretary of State for India, a member of the Cabinet, was responsible for instructing him on the exercise of his powers. After 1947, the Sovereign continued to appoint the Governor-General, but did so on the advice of the Indian government, rather than the British government.
Governors-General served five-year terms, but could be removed earlier. After the conclusion of a term, a provisional Governor-General was sometimes appointed until a new holder of the office could be chosen. Provisional Governors-General were often chosen from amongst the provincial Governors.
Much of India was originally governed by the East India Company, which nominally acted as the agent of the Mughal Emperor. In 1773, motivated by corruption in the Company, the British government assumed partial control over the governance of India with the passage of the Regulating Act. A Governor-General and Council were appointed to rule over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. The first Governor-General and Council were named in the Act; their successors were to be elected by the East India Company's Court of Directors. The Act provided for a five-year term for the Governor-General and Council, but the Sovereign had the power to remove any of them.
The Charter Act 1833 replaced the Governor-General and Council of Fort William with the Governor-General and Council of India. The power to elect the Governor-General was retained by the Court of Directors, but the choice became subject to the Sovereign's approval.
After the Sepoy Rebellion, the East India Company was abolished, and India put under the direct control of the Sovereign. The Government of India Act 1858 vested the power to appoint the Governor-General in the Sovereign. The Governor-General, in turn, had the power to appoint all Lieutenant-Governors in India, subject to the Sovereign's approval.
India and Pakistan acquired independence in 1947, but Governors-General continued to be appointed over each nation until permanent constitutions could be written. Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma remained Governor-General of India for some time after independence, but the two nations were otherwise headed by native Governors-General. India became a secular republic in 1950; Pakistan became an Islamic one in 1956.
Role in government
The Governor-General originally had power only over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. The Regulating Act, however, granted them additional powers relating to foreign affairs and defence. The other Presidencies of the East India Company (Madras, Bombay and Bencoolen) were neither allowed to declare war on nor make peace with an Indian prince without receiving the prior approval of the Governor-General and Council of Fort William.
The powers of the Governor-General in respect of foreign affairs were increased by the India Act 1784. The Act provided that the other Governors under the East India Company could not declare war, make peace or conclude a treaty with an Indian prince unless expressly directed to do so by the Governor-General, or by the Company's Court of Directors.
While the Governor-General thus became the controller of foreign policy in India, he was not the explicit head of British India. This status only came with the Charter Act 1833, which granted him "superintendence, direction and control of the whole civil and military Government" of all of British India. The Act also granted legislative powers to the Governor-General and Council.
After 1858, the Governor-General functioned as the chief administrator of India and as the Sovereign's representative. India was divided into numerous provinces, each under the head of a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or Chief Commissioner. Governors were appointed by the British government, to whom they were directly responsible; Lieutenant-Governors and Chief Commissioners, however, were appointed by and were subordinate to the Governor-General. The Governor-General also oversaw the most powerful princely rulers: the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maharaja of Mysore, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir and the Maharaja Gaekwar of Baroda. The remaining princely rulers were overseen either by the Rajputana Agency and Central India Agency (which were headed by representatives of the Governor-General), or by provincial authorities.
Once India acquired independence, however, the Governor-General's role became entirely ceremonial, with actual power being held by elected Indian politicians. After the nation became a republic, the President of India continued to perform the same ceremonial functions.
The Governor-General has always been advised by a Council on the exercise of his legislative and executive powers. The Governor-General, whilst exercising many of functions, was referred to as the "Governor-General in Council."
The Regulating Act 1773 provided for the election of four counsellors by the East India Company's Court of Directors. The Governor-General had a vote along with the counsellors, but he also had an additional vote to break ties. The decision of the Council was binding on the Governor-General.
In 1784, the Council was reduced to three members; the Governor-General continued to have both an ordinary vote and a casting vote. In 1786, the power of the Governor-General was increased even further, as Council decisions ceased to be binding.
The Charter Act 1833 made further changes to the structure of the Council. The Act was the first law to distinguish between the executive and legislative responsibilities of the Governor-General. As provided under the Act, there were to be four members of the Council elected by the Court of Directors. The first three members were permitted to participate on all occasions, but the fourth member was only allowed to sit and vote when legislation was being debated.
In 1858, the Court of Directors ceased to have the power to elect members of the Council. Instead, the one member who had a vote only on legislative questions came to be appointed by the Sovereign, and the other three members by the Secretary of State for India.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 made several changes to the Council's composition. Three members were to be appointed by the Secretary of State for India, and two by the Sovereign. (The power to appoint all five members passed to the Crown in 1869.) The Governor-General was empowered to appoint an additional six to twelve members (changed to ten to sixteen in 1892, and to sixty in 1909). The five individuals appointed by the Indian Secretary or Sovereign headed the executive departments, while those appointed by the Governor-General debated and voted on legislation.
In 1919, an Indian Legislature, consisting of a Council of State and a Legislative Assembly, took over the legislative functions of the Governor-General's Council. The Governor-General nonetheless retained significant power over legislation. He could authorise the expenditure of money without the Legislature's consent for "ecclesiastical, political [and] defence" purposes, and for any purpose during "emergencies." He was permitted to veto, or even stop debate on, any bill. If he recommended the passage of a bill, but only one chamber co-operated, he could declare the bill passed over the objections of the other chamber. The Legislature had no authority over foreign affairs and defence. The President of the Council of State was appointed by the Governor-General; the Legislative Assembly elected its President, but the election required the Governor-General's approval.
The Governor-General used the style Excellency and enjoyed precedence over all other government officials in India. From 1858 to 1947, Governors-General were known as "Viceroys" (from the French roi, meaning "king"). Wives of Viceroys were known as Vicereines (from the French reine, meaning "queen"). Neither title was employed whilst the Sovereign was in India. These titles, though frequently applied, were never officially created by the British government.
When the Order of the Star of India was founded in 1861, the Governor-General was made its Grand Master ex officio. The Governor-General was also made the ex officio Grand Master of the Order of the Indian Empire upon its foundation in 1877.
Most Governors-General were peers. Of those that were not, Sir John Shore was a baronet, Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence was a knight, and The Lord William Bentinck was entitled to the courtesy title "Lord" because he was the son of a Duke. Only the first and last Governors-General—Warren Hastings and Chakravarti Rajagopalchari—as well as some Provisional Governors-General, had no special titles at all.
From around 1885, the Governor-General was allowed to fly a Union Flag defaced in the centre with the "Star of India" surmounted by a Crown. This flag was not the Governor-General's personal flag; it was also used by Governors, Lieutenant Governors, Chief Commissioners and other British officers in India. When at sea, only the Governor-General flew the flag from the mainmast, while other officials flew it from the foremast.
From 1947 to 1950, the Governor-General of India used a dark blue flag bearing the royal crest (a lion standing on a crown), beneath which was the word "India" in gold majuscules. The same design was used by many other British Governors-General. This last flag was the personal flag of the Governor-General only.
The Governor-General of Fort William resided in Belvedere House, Calcutta until the early nineteenth century, when Government House was constructed. In 1854, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal took up residence there. Now, the Belvedere Estate houses the National Library of India.
Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, who is reputed to have said that "India should be governed from a palace, not from a country house," constructed a grand mansion, known as Government House, between 1799 and 1803. The mansion remained in use until the capital moved from Calcutta to Delhi in 1912. Thereafter, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, who had hitherto resided in Belvedere House, was upgraded to a full Governor and transferred to Government House. Now, it serves as the residence of the Governor of the Indian state of West Bengal, and is referred to by its Hindi name ("Raj Bhavan").
After the capital moved from Calcutta to Delhi, the Viceroy occupied a newly-built Viceroy's House, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. Though construction began in 1912, it did not conclude until 1929; the home was not formally inaugurated until 1931. The final cost exceeded £877,000 (over £35,000,000 in modern terms)—more than twice the figure originally allocated. Today the residence, now known by the Hindi name of "Rashtrapati Bhavan," is used by the President of India.
Throughout the British administration, the Governors-General retreated to the Viceregal Lodge at Shimla each summer to escape the heat, and the government of India moved with them.
Governors-General of Fort William
Governors-General of India